- Sounds highlighted in green can always appear.
- Sounds highlighted in red may be harder for a native English speaker to identify, and can only appear if hard mode is enabled. Hard mode can be toggled in the mod settings. If hard mode is enabled, the play button will be red, otherwise it will be green.
- Sounds highlighted in gray, with empty cells, either don’t exist or will never appear.
How to read the IPA tables:
All consonants have a “manner”, referring to what action in the mouth is taken, and a “place”, referring to where it is taken. In the table of pulmonic consonants, the manner is the row, and the place is the column. A consonant being pulmonic means that it is produced by air pressure from the lungs.
A forward slash in the pulmonic table refers to unvoiced/voiced consonants. When a consonant is voiced, the vocal cords are vibrating while it is being spoken.
In the following explanations, an “articulator” refers to a part of the mouth that is performing the manner. This is not the same as place— For example, in alveolar consonants, the articulator is the tongue.
- Plosive: Vocal tract is blocked, and all airflow ceases.
- Nasal: Air escapes through the nose, but not the mouth.
- Trill: An articulator is held stationary, and an airstream causes it to vibrate.
- Tap or Flap: A single contraction of the muscles is made so that one articulator is struck against another.
- Fricative: Air is forced through two articulators held close together.
- Lateral Fricative: A fricative where airstream moves along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked from going through the middle of the mouth.
- Approximant: Two articulators are held near each other, but not close enough to become a fricative.
- Lateral Approximant: Same as lateral fricatives, but with approximants.
- Click: Two articulators are held together, and the resulting pocket of air is rarefied by a sucking action.